The current Turkish social security system comprises four insurance classes: pension insurance, accident insurance, general health insurance, and unemployment insurance. No long-term care insurance provision is yet in place.
State social benefits in Turkey fall well below the German standard. The insurance available offers protection in case of illness, maternity, accidents at work, disabilities, and occupational diseases and provide for a pension, albeit often a small one. Since 2006, the sole social insurance institution in the country has been Sosyal Güvenlik Kurumu (SGK). This institution is responsible for all other insurance classes other than unemployment insurance.
Many artists in Turkey do not have social insurance coverage.
Since 2001, artists in Turkey have had the opportunity to take out private retirement insurance. Unlike statutory pension insurance, private pension plans are not compulsory. In principle, anyone can join the system. Legislators have merely stipulated that anyone wanting to benefit from the system must have reached the age of 18. Since legislators have not limited the scope, employees, civil servants, artists, self-employed persons, housewives, the unemployed, and other groups of people who do not work may join the system. Since 2012, the country has been paying an amount equal to 25 percent of the contributions made into the pension system.
Information is available on the website of Turkey’s Social Security Institute.
Also worth reading: Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy, Soziale Sicherheit in der Türkei – Grundlagenbericht, 2016 (German language).