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Europäische Union
Definition:

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Die Europäische Union (EU) ist ein wirtschaftliches und politisches Bündnis von zurzeit 28 Staaten in Europa mit etwa einer halben Milliarde Einwohner (Stand: Februar 2015). Die Anfänge gehen auf die 1950er Jahre zurück, als nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg sechs Staaten die Europäischen Gemeinschaften (EG) gründeten. 1993 wurde die Gründung der EU mit dem Vertrag von Maastricht beschlossen. Mit dem bisher letzten Reformvertrag, dem Vertrag von Lissabon, wurde die zwischenstaatliche Zusammenarbeit um zwei weitere Politikfelder ergänzt: Gemeinsame Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik und Zusammenarbeit im Bereich Justiz und Inneres.

Quelle: Wikipedia, redaktionell bearbeitet

Europäischer Binnenmarkt
Definition:

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Der Europäische Binnenmarkt ist eine im Jahr 1993 in Kraft getretene Vereinbarung auf dem Weg zur wirtschaftlichen Integration innerhalb der damaligen Europäischen Gemeinschaften (EG). Er umfasst die Mitgliedstaaten der EU sowie die Staaten Island, Norwegen, Liechtenstein und die Schweiz. Die Vereinbarung beinhaltet vier Grundfreiheiten: die Personenfreizügigkeit, der freie Warenverkehr, die Dienstleistungsfreiheit und der freie Kapital- und Zahlungsverkehr.

Quelle: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, redaktionell bearbeitet

Europäischer Wirtschaftsraum
Definition:

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Der Europäische Wirtschaftsraum (EWR) bezeichnet die zwischen der EU sowie Island, Liechtenstein und Norwegen vereinbarte Ausdehnung des Europäischen Binnenmarktes mit dem Ziel, einen gemeinsamen Wirtschaftsraum in Europa zu schaffen. Der freie Personen-, Waren- und Kapitalverkehr sowie die Zusammenarbeit in Fragen des Kraftverkehrs, der Landwirtschaft, der Fischerei, des Handels und der Energie wurden in dieser Vereinbarung beschlossen. Der EWR-Vertrag trat zum 1. Januar 1994 in Kraft. Die Schweiz nimmt nicht am EWR teil: Die Schweizer Bevölkerung entschied sich in einem Referendum im Jahr 1992 gegen einen Beitritt.

Quelle: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, redaktionell bearbeitet

European Economic Area
Definition:

Relevance: all topics

The European Economic Area (EEA) refers to the expansion of the European Single Market agreed on by the EU, Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway with the goal of creating a common economic area in Europe. This agreement included provisions concerning the free movement of persons, goods, and capital, as well as cooperation in matters of motor transport, agriculture, fishery, trade, and energy. The EEA Agreement took effect on January 1, 1994. Switzerland does not participate in the EEA, as the Swiss people voted against accession to the EEA in a referendum in 1992.

Source: Federal Agency for Civic Education, edited and translated

European Health Insurance Card (EHIC)
Definition:

Relevance: Social security

EU citizens can use the European Health Insurance Card (EHIC) to claim medically necessary public health services during a temporary stay in one of the 28 EU countries, as well as in Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland. They will be treated under the same conditions and at the same cost (free in some countries) as those insured in the respective country. Any costs incurred are usually reimbursed retroactively by the patient’s own health insurance provider. The card is free and is issued by the health insurance providers. It is not a substitute for foreign travel health insurance, however.   Source: European Commission, edited and translated

European Single Market
Definition:

Relevance: all topics

The European Single Market is an agreement on the path to economic integration within the then European Communities (EC) that entered into force in 1993. It includes the EU Member States as well as Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein, and Switzerland. The agreement includes four fundamental freedoms: free movement of workers, free movement of goods, free movement of services, and free movement of capital and payments.

Source: Federal Agency for Civic Education, edited and translated

European Union
Definition:

Relevance: all topics

The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union currently consisting of 28 countries in Europe with about half a billion inhabitants (as of February 2015). The origins of the Union date back to the 1950s, when six countries established the European Communities (EC) following the Second World War. In 1992, the EU was founded with the Treaty of Maastricht. With the last reform treaty to date, the Treaty of Lisbon, two additional policy areas were supplemented by intergovernmental cooperation: common foreign and security policy and the area of justice and home affairs.

Source: Wikipedia, edited and translated

Excise tax
Definition:

Relevance: Transport and customs

Excise taxes are taxes levied on certain goods, namely convenience goods (e.g., coffee or electricity), which are defined in the excise tax laws. These are indirect taxes, since they are collected from the manufacturer or seller who, however, usually passes the cost on to the customer as part of the sales price. Excise tax is subject to VAT.

Source: www.zoll.de, edited and translated

Exploitation rights
Definition:

Relevance: Copyright

Exploitation rights are part of the German Copyright Act (§ 15ff. UrhG). They grant the originator the exclusive right to exploit his/her work or to present it in public. Exploitation rights include the right of reproduction (§ 16 UrhG), right of distribution (§ 17 UrhG), right of exhibition (§ 18 UrhG), the right of recitation, performance and presentation (§ 19 UrhG), the right of making the work available to the public (§ 19a UrhG), right of broadcasting (§ 20 UrhG), the right of communication by video and audio recordings (§ 21 UrhG), the right of communication of broadcasts and of works made available to the public (§ 22 UrhG), adaptations and transformations (§ 23 UrhG) and the right to free use (§ 24 UrhG).
A distinction is made between primary, secondary and tertiary exploitation rights.
It should be noted, however, that there are certain limitations with regard to exploitation rights (see Limits of copyright).

Source: UrhG, edited and translated

Export duties
Definition:

Relevance: Transport and customs

Customs duties are taxes that are levied when goods are transported across a customs border. A distinction is made between import, transit, and export duties.
Export duties - which increase the goods export cost - are rarely levied, as it is usually in the interest of a country to sell goods to foreign countries. Reasons for the collection of export duties include the desire to increase government revenue or restrict the export of non-renewable raw materials.

Source: Wikipedia, edited and translated

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